White Rhino

Ceratotherium simum

Two subspecies are recognized—the Southern White Rhino (C. s. simum) and the Northern White Rhino (C. s. cottoni), which is functionally extinct.


At the end of 2021 the population of White Rhinos stood at 15,942. From 2017 to 2021 numbers were decreasing at 3.1 per cent a year. Nevertheless, the White Rhino remains the most numerous of all the living rhinos. In South Africa private ownership of White Rhinos increased to 53.2 percent of the national population.

SOURCE: Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. CoP19 Doc. 75 https://cites.org/sites/default/files/documents/E-CoP19-75.pdf



In pre-historical times the White Rhino would have roamed widely throughout the African savanna. Today, two widely separated subspecies occur, one in north-central Africa (now functionally extinct) and the other in southern Africa. It has been argued that they have been separated for so long that, coupled with morphological differences, they should be recognized as two distinct species, but this is disputed. (See maps)


The White Rhino favors open grassland and savanna.


Weight: 4,800–7,700 lbs (1,800–3,500 kg) Shoulder height: 5 ft 10 in–6 ft 7 in (1.8–2 m) Length nose to tail: 11 ft 6 in–15 ft (3.5–4.6 m) Front horn length: 37–40 in (94 cm–1.02 m) Rear horn length: up to 22 in (55 cm)

Outstanding Features

The White Rhino is marginally bigger and heavier than the Indian Rhino, making it the largest of all the living rhinos. Its wide, square-lipped mouth profile, generally low-slung head posture, and noticeably large shoulder hump, are distinctive. It has two well-developed horns, of which the front one is the longer.

Life History

The White Rhino lives for about 40 years in the wild. Females reach sexual maturity at 4–5 years of age but do not reproduce until they are 6–7 years old. Males tend not to mate until they are 10–12 years old. Females give birth, generally to a single calf, after a gestation period of about 16 months, with a gap of 2–3 years between calves. Weaning begins as soon as two weeks after birth, but calves may continue suckling for up to a year.



The White Rhino is a specialist grazer, feeding on grass with a characteristic “mowing” action. The wide, flat upper lip is well adapted for the purpose. White Rhinos drink regularly when water is available but can survive for about 4–5 days without water if resources are scarce.



The White Rhino is remarkably agile and fast for its bulk. In short bursts, it can reach 25–30 mph (40–50 kph).


Squeaks, wails, and snarls are all part of the White Rhino’s range of vocal communication.

Social Behaviour

White Rhinos are sedentary. Females are more social than the other species, associating in small stable groups known as “crashes,” usually made up of two companion females and their latest offspring. Males are predominantly solitary and occupy small territories, usually made up of a dominant bull and one to three “satellite” bulls that are tolerated if submissive. Intruding bulls are met with aggression. Female home ranges are much larger and overlap. As with other rhinos, Scent marking is essential in communicating with other individuals. Communal dung middens, mainly situated at territorial boundaries, are used by males and females. Males also engage in ritualized dung kicking and spraying.

Human Contact

White Rhinos are now confined to game reserves and private ranches where interaction with humans is limited to tourists, rangers, other conservation staff and, sadly, poachers.

Conservation Status

Listed as “Near Threatened” on the IUCN Red Data List. Listed in CITES Appendix I except for the South African and Eswatini populations listed in Appendix II.


Current Threats

Although poaching rates have dropped slightly from the highs of 2014 and 2015. However, the fact that there are now fewer White Rhinos and they are more difficult to find is likely to be the reason rather than a reduction in demand. The illegal killing of rhinos for their horns remains a serious present and future threat.