The Indian Rhino once roamed throughout the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent, along the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra rivers. Its historical range spread eastwards from Pakistan to the Indian-Myanmar border, including parts of Nepal, Bangladesh, and Bhutan, possibly even Myanmar. It might have extended even further eastwards into southern China and Indochina. However, by the early 20th century, the Indian Rhino was all but extinct. Only about 100–200 are thought to have remained in the wild.
In 2021, a rhino census in Nepal set the population at 752. Then, in March 2022, a census in Kaziranga National Park in Assam counted 2,613 rhinos. Most of India’s rhinos live in Kaziranga, and India’s current rhino population is likely to be around 3,190. Together, India and Nepal are home to about 3,900—a very significant conservation success story.
This representation of the historical distribution of the Indian Rhino is derived from the Status Survey & Conservation Action Plan (New Edition) Asian Rhinos edited by Thomas J Foose and Nico van Strien, published by the IUCN/SSC Asian Rhino Specialist Group (AsRSG).
Approximate location of current populations